Gazetteer References & Data Sources

Database & Map Update Cycles

  1. The ZIP Code database and ZIP Code maps are each updated 4 times. The database was last updated on January 1, 2023 and the maps were last updated on August 12, 2022.
  2. The School Attendance Zone Maps are updated 4 times per year. Last update: November 28, 2022.
  3. The Demographic Data is updated annually. Last update: July 1, 2022.

Source of Geographic Data

The geographic data for the physical, cultural and historic features is based on the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). The GNIS is maintained by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and is the official Federal database for domestic geographic feature names and locative information.

Source of Demographic Data

The annual census demographic estimates and 5-year forecasts are based upon data produced by Esri Demographics. Their estimates and forecasts use the latest US Census Bureau annual American Community Survey (ACS) as a starting point. They then combine additional data from multiple sources including residential postal delivery counts from the USPS, a time series of county-to-county migration patterns from the IRS, building permits, housing starts and local data sources that tested well against the most recent census. For more detailed information: Methodology Statement: 2022/2027 Esri Updated Demographics.

Source of School Profile Information

The primary data source for our school profiles is the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) at the US Department of Education.

Source of Maps, Map Data, and Boundaries

  1. The base maps, terrain maps, and satellite views are produced by HERE. They also provide the driving directions.
  2. The defined boundaries for neighborhoods, incorporated places, Census Designated Places, counties and county subdivisions that overlay the maps are derrived on data provided by Esri.
  3. Both the School Attendance Zone Maps and ZIP Code Maps are derived from data provided by Precisely. Precisely is a new company that was formed when Synscort and Pitnery Bowes Software & Data combined into one organization. Their customers include 90 of the Fortune 100 largest U.S. corporations.
  4. The Congressional District Maps are based on data provided by the U.S. Census Bureau

Source of Most Popular Places, Geocoding, & Jobs

  1. The listings used to create the local Top 20 Popular Places and related data are powered by HERE. They pioneered in-car navigation systems over 30 years ago - first as NAVTEQ, later as Nokia Maps, and now as HERE. The company draws on more than 80,000 data sources and they rely on local source data for information about local business and attractions.
  2. Forward Geocoding, taking an address and translating it into geographic coordinates, is performed by HERE.